The number of minerals is the same as the number of vitamins – 13. They are divided into two categories  :
- “Macrominerals” – the ones that are required in larger amounts by the body (in milligrams).
- “Trace elements” – the ones which are required in small amounts (in micrograms).
They are responsible for our health and wellbeing, and offer us many benefits for skincare. Let’s see each macro mineral and trace element in detail.
Which are the macrominerals (list)?
Calcium (Ca) 
- It is essential for strong bones and teeth. Besides, it is responsible for proper heart, muscle, and nerve functions.
- Deficiency signs can include weak and brittle nails, easily-occurring bone fractures, muscle spasms, heart palpitation, numbness in hands and feet. Keep in mind that strong untreated calcium deficiency may lead to death.
- Foods rich in calcium are dairy products, fatty fish, almonds, kale, and broccoli. ( Check out our delicious & healthy broccoli recipes)
Sodium (Na) 
- Its function is to ensure proper hydration in the body and proper fluid balance. It also keeps the nervous system and the muscles healthy.
- Deficiency signs can be headache, fatigue, nausea, weakness, irritability. (deficiency of sodium happens very rarely)
- The richest food in sodium is table salt.
- High sodium consumption is related to increased risk of hypertension, cardio-vascular issues, and kidney disease.
Chloride (Cl) 
- It is essential for the production of stomach acid and ensuring proper fluid balance.
- Deficiency symptoms can include vomiting, diarrhea, and excessive sweat. As a result, the body may lose a high percentage of its normal fluid levels. However, chloride deficiency happens very rarely, as this mineral is supplied regularly through food.
- Foods rich in chloride are table salt and soy sauce.
Potassium (K) 
- Its function is to keep the nervous system and muscles healthy, as well as to balance the hydration in the body. It also maintains normal blood pressure levels and keeps your kidneys healthy.
- Deficiency symptoms may include low blood pressure, formation of kidney stones, low heart rate, muscle paralysis, and fatigue.
- Foods rich in potassium include bananas ( which also have other health and body benefits), peanuts, potatoes, etc.
Phosphorus (P) 
- It is found in every body cell. It’s essential for maintaining proper acid balance in the body and efficient oxygen delivery to the cells and tissues. The normal blood acidity is between 7.35 and 7.45 pH. However, different factors may impact the acid regulator organs in the body (kidneys and lungs), and could cause acidosis or alkalosis.
- Deficiency signs include anxiety, irritability, anemia, numbness in feet and arms, weight changes, and muscle weakness.
- Foods rich in phosphorus are meat, fish, poultry, dairy foods, eggs.
Magnesium (Mg) 
- It is essential for regulating the metabolism (and produce energy), and supporting the immune and nervous systems. It also helps for proper muscle functions and formation of bones.
- Deficiency signs include be rapid heartbeat, insomnia, anxiety, depression, poor memory, muscle spasms, eye twitching, and fatigue, osteoporosis, migraine, diabetes type 2, etc.
- Foods rich in magnesium are nuts and seeds, whole grains, bananas, and apricots.
Here is a list of the trace elements (trace minerals)
Iodine (I) 
- Its function is to regulate and balance the work of the thyroid gland and the hormones produced by it. Their function include metabolism management, as well as brain function, bone development, and immune system support.
- Deficiency signs may include thyroid gland problems (hypo or hyperfunction), abnormal thyroid hormone levels (typically TSH), significant weight changes, inability to conceive, fatigue, etc.
- Foods rich in iodine are seaweed, fish and seafood, walnuts, sea salt.
Iron (Fe) 
- Iron helps to transport oxygen in the muscles and tissues. It is an essential component of hemoglobin, which is a protein present in the red blood cells. There are two types of iron: heme and non-heme. The first type is found in animal-based products and is more efficiently absorbed by your body. Non-heme iron is present in plant foods: it is not as efficiently absorbed, so larger consumption amounts are often needed to to meet the recommended daily intake.
- Deficiency signs may include anemia and heart palpitations.
- Foods rich in iron are liver, meat, eggs, leafy vegetables (especially spinach and kale), legumes, nuts.
Selenium (Se) 
- It is a strong antioxidant. It works to support healthy thyroid gland, helps for DNA synthesis, and prevents infection and body cells damage from oxidative stress.
- Deficiency signs may include depression, hypo-or hypofunction of the thyroid gland, drastic weight gain or weight loss, memory loss, depression, weak immune system, etc.
- Foods rich in selenium are fish (especially tuna), poultry, eggs, and nuts.
Zinc (Zn) 
- Its function is to boost the regeneration and reproduction of cells; thus, it can be efficient for healing open cuts and wounds. It can also boosts the immune system and help in DNA and protein synthesis.
- Deficiency symptoms include flaky skin, cracked lips, hair loss, impotence, weakened immune system, and loss of appetite.
- Foods rich in zinc are whole grains, meat, fish, and eggs.
Copper (Cu) 
- It is essential cofactor for different enzymes responsible for metabolism, absorption of iron, oxygen transportation, immune support, healthy blood vessels, pigmentation of skin and hair, and other body functions.
- Deficiency signs may include anemia, osteoporosis, and grey hair at a young age.
- Foods rich in copper are seeds and nuts, legumes and whole grains.
Chromium (Cr) 
- Its function is related to supporting proper breakdown fats and carbs. As a result it is associated with balancing blood sugar, glucose, cholesterol, and fatty acids levels. It helps the body to maintain proper insulin levels and keep the pancreas healthy. This way chromium may prevent the development of insulin resistance.
- Deficiency symptoms include insulin deficiency, gain weight, diabetes type 2, high blood sugar, and high total or LDL cholesterol.
- Foods rich in chromium are brewer’s yeast, nuts, whole grains, cheese, broccoli.
Fluoride (F) 
- Its function is to support bone and teeth development and regeneration. It may also prevent the formation of tooth decays in children and adults. One concern related to increased fluoride exposure is the development of dental fluorosis in children. During their first 8 years (when the child’s permanent teeth are forming), overexposure to this mineral can lead to brittle and discolored teeth with white spots, which are prone to decays.
- Deficiency signs can include tooth plaque, weakened tooth enamel, and easily occurring cavities. (such deficiency is not common, as fluoride can be found in most bottled mineral water brands)
- Foods rich in fluoride are tea, and mineral water.
Keep in mind that pregnant women should also be careful when drinking mineral water with high fluoride content! This may impact the teeth formation and development of the baby later.
Disclaimer: I am not a doctor, and I do not aim to give any medical advice. The information presented in this article is based on research and aims to give information about the topic.